Turf

Turf is grass and the part of the soil beneath it held together by the roots, or a piece of thin material. In British English such material is more usually known as turf, and the word "sod" is limited mainly to agricultural senses (for example for turf when ploughed). A surface layer of earth containing a dense growth of grass and its matted roots; sod. An artificial substitute for such a grassy layer, as on a playing field. 

Uses

Turf is typically used for lawns, golf courses, and sports stadiums around the world. In residential construction, it is sold to landscapers, home builders or home owners who use it to establish a lawn quickly and avoid soil erosion. Sod can be used to repair a small area of lawn, golf course, or athletic field that has died. Sod is also effective in increasing cooling, improving air and water quality, and assisting in flood prevention by draining water. 

Turf is grown on specialist farms. For 2009, the United States Department of Agriculture reported 1,412 farms had 368,188 acres (149,000.4 ha) of sod in production. It is usually grown locally (within 100 miles of the target market) to minimize both the cost of transport and also the risk of damage to the product. The farms that produce this grass may have many varieties of grass grown in one location to best suit the consumer's use and preference of appearance.  

Cultivation

Turf is grown on specialist farms. For 2009, the United States Department of Agriculture reported 1,412 farms had 368,188 acres (149,000.4 ha) of sod in production. It is usually grown locally (within 100 miles of the target market) to minimize both the cost of transport and also the risk of damage to the product. The farms that produce this grass may have many varieties of grass grown in one location to best suit the consumer's use and preference of appearance.  

It is usually harvested 10 to 18 months after planting, depending on the growing climate. On the farm it undergoes fertilization, frequent watering, frequent mowing and subsequent vacuuming to remove the clippings. It is harvested using specialized equipment, precision cut to standardized sizes. Sod is typically harvested in small square slabs, rounded rectangles, or large 4-foot-wide (1.2 m) rolls.  

Cultivars used

Bermudagrass is quite commonly used for golf courses and sports fields across the southern portions of the United States. It tolerates a range of climates in the US, from hot and humid in the Gulf Coast to arid in the southwest and lower Midwest. "Established bermudagrass is a network of shoots, rhizomes, stolons, and crown tissue together that usually form a dense plant canopy. This dense plant canopy can be used to propagate clonal varieties by sod, sprigs, or plugs. The aggressive and resilient nature of Bermudagrass make it not only an excellent turfgrass, but also unfortunately a challenging invasive weed in land cultivated for other purposes.  

Celebration Bermudagrass "‘Celebration’ is a dark green, fine textured, aggressive, traffic-tolerant cultivar with high recuperative potential and drought tolerance." The cultivar is a breed of Cynodon dactylon from Australia developed by turfgrass breeder Rod Riley. The grass has a distinctive deep blue-green color which makes it popular on golf courses and for private home lawns throughout the southern United States. As a leading cultivar, the research on Celebration is extensive.  

The cultivar was also the top-rated Bermudagrass for drought resistance in a test conducted in South Carolina. Along with many golf courses across the southern United States, the Tampa Bay Buccaneers elected to install Celebration bermudagrass in their stadium. 

Bella Bluegrass

Bella Bluegrass was developed by the University of Nebraska as a drought resistant grass that would help states conserve water. It was immediately embraced by schools and homeowners in the state of Utah who are voluntarily trying to conserve water. Bella is the world’s first dwarf, vegetative Bluegrass. It is sold only as sod, not as seed. Bella is a quick grower laterally, but has very minimal vertical growth. Because it only grows to about 4" in height, it requires less mowing. It grows in sand, clay, muck and peat, and is currently being adopted across the northern United States.